# Table of Contents

- Page ID
- 19469

## 2: Sampling and Data

Included in this chapter are the basic ideas and words of probability and statistics. You will soon understand that statistics and probability work together. You will also learn how data are gathered and what "good" data can be distinguished from "bad."## 3: Descriptive Statistics

In this chapter, you will study numerical and graphical ways to describe and display your data. This area of statistics is called "Descriptive Statistics." You will learn how to calculate, and even more importantly, how to interpret these measurements and graphs.## 4: Graphing Distributions

Graphing data is the first and often most important step in data analysis. In this day of computers, researchers all too often see only the results of complex computer analyses without ever taking a close look at the data themselves. This is all the more unfortunate because computers can create many types of graphs quickly and easily. This chapter covers some classic types of graphs such as bar charts and box plots.## 5: Probability Topics

Probability theory is concerned with probability, the analysis of random phenomena. The central objects of probability theory are random variables, stochastic processes, and events: mathematical abstractions of non-deterministic events or measured quantities that may either be single occurrences or evolve over time in an apparently random fashion.## 6: The Normal Distribution

In this chapter, you will study the normal distribution, the standard normal distribution, and applications associated with them. The normal distribution has two parameters (two numerical descriptive measures), the mean ( μμ ) and the standard deviation ( σσ ).## 7: Sampling Distributions

The probability distribution of a statistic is called its sampling distribution. Typically sample statistics are not ends in themselves, but are computed in order to estimate the corresponding population parameters. This chapter introduces the concepts of the mean, the standard deviation, and the sampling distribution of a sample statistic, with an emphasis on the sample mean.## 10: Confidence Intervals

In this chapter, you will learn to construct and interpret confidence intervals. You will also learn a new distribution, the Student's-t, and how it is used with these intervals. Throughout the chapter, it is important to keep in mind that the confidence interval is a random variable. It is the population parameter that is fixed.## 12: Hypothesis Testing with Two Samples

You have learned to conduct hypothesis tests on single means and single proportions. You will expand upon that in this chapter. You will compare two means or two proportions to each other. To compare two means or two proportions, you work with two groups. The groups are classified either as independent or matched pairs.## 14: Linear Regression and Correlation

Regression analysis is a statistical process for estimating the relationships among variables and includes many techniques for modeling and analyzing several variables. When the focus is on the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables.## 15: F Distribution and One-Way ANOVA

For hypothesis tests comparing averages between more than two groups, statisticians have developed a method called "Analysis of Variance" (abbreviated ANOVA). In this chapter, you will study the simplest form of ANOVA called single factor or one-way ANOVA. You will also study the FF distribution, used for one-way ANOVA, and the test of two variances. This is just a very brief overview of one-way ANOVA.